ISSN 1556-6757


SJI 


 

 

 

 

 
 
 

Volume 1, Issue 1, 2009

 
 

Selection of Effective and Efficient Snow Removal and Ice Control Technologies for Cold-Region Bridges Jing Zhang, Debendra K. Das, and Rorik Peterson

Abstract

In cold regions, snow and ice pose serious hazards to motorists. In order to minimize their detrimental effects caused by snow and ice on roadways, snow removal and ice control measures are necessary. So far, there is no single solution for snow and ice control on roadways. The aim of this work is to provide a procedure of selection of bridge deicing in cold regions. A comprehensive literature review of deicing and anti-icing techniques is first presented. Factors affecting the method choice are discussed. Finally, a case study of demonstrating the selection of an appropriate method of ice control for bridge deicing is performed. Full Article



 

Land Use Planning and Open Space Preservation: Economic Impacts of Low-Density Urbanization and Urban Sprawl.  Gerhardus Schultink

Abstract
 

In the United States, dispersion of low density residential areas is typically observed at the urban fringe adjacent to metropolitan areas. It is associated with a depopulation of urban centers and an underutilization and decay of the physical and service infrastructure of central cities. In many metropolitan regions this dispersed growth pattern is, increasingly, an important policy concern due to the permanent conversion of prime and unique farmland and its long-term economic implications. A study was conducted to assess the impact of permanent land use conversion and, specifically, the resulting economic impact of agricultural production loss for the Lansing metropolitan region. Based on 2001 commodity prices, the total Annual Agricultural Production Loss (AAPL), without value-added implications, amounted to a combined total of about $8,628,000. If the additional back and forward linkages of agricultural production are considered, the overall economic impact is conservatively estimated to amount to more than $22 million per annum, for the Tri-county area alone. The near-term trend of revenue loss may easily exceed $30 million per year if prevailing commodity price increases for 2007 are an indication. Controversial policies that create multiple incentives for increased corn production for ethanol (production increased from 0.175 billion gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006) and a current import levy of $ 0.54 per gallon2 on ethanol will further effect the actual economic impacts. This research seeks to ascertain the cost and real long-term implications of the conservation of highly productive farm land. It raises the fundamental question of whether residential development should be directed to urban and peri-urban areas with existing service capacity, facilitating more cost-effective service delivery while reducing environmental impacts and preserving the agricultural economic vitality of rural areas. Full Article