ISSN 1556-6757


SJI 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 
 
 
Volume 2, Issue 1, 2008
 
 

The Influence of Gender Identification and Self-Efficacy on Counseling Students: A Multicultural Approach  Josť Maldonado

 

Abstract

Master and doctoral students attending CACREP accredited counselor education programs participated in this research study. Of the 189 CACREP accredited programs invited to participate, 21% of the programs had students responding (n= 176; 33 (19%) males, 143 (81%) females). Each participant completed the Multicultural Counseling Inventory and The Counselor Self-Efficacy Scale. Significant differences were evident for gender and self-efficacy and four sub-scales of multicultural counseling competency. Master and doctoral students attending CACREP accredited counselor education programs participated in this research study. Each participant completed the Multicultural Counseling Inventory and The Counselor Self-Efficacy Scale. Significant differences were evident for ethnicity and self-efficacy and four sub-scales of multicultural counseling competency.  Full Article





Examining the Validity of the Body Mass Index Cut-Off Score for Obesity of Different Ethnicities  Liette B. Ocker and Don R. Melrose


Abstract

The purpose of this study was to validate BMI cut-point values associated with obesity in different genders and ethnic groups. The criterion-referenced validity coefficients and decision validity coefficients were high. Obesity sensitivity, the percent of true positives, in Hispanics was higher than the other groups. The specificity, the percent of true negatives, was equally high for all the groups. Asians had a moderately low positive predictive value indicating that low BMI may have high body fat. Finally, the negative predictive values were good in all the ethnic groups. Full Article





The Impending Educational Crisis for American Indians: Higher Education at the Crossroads
Billie Hunt and Charles F. Harrington

 

Abstract

A significant gap exists in the post-secondary educational achievement levels of American Indian
students despite significant gains attained in various avenues of education reform. A college education is a significant driver in the socioeconomic advancement of American Indian communities. Numerous factors impact the admission, persistence and timely graduation of American Indian students from institutions of higher education. These issues have a direct impact on the significantly low numbers of doctorally-prepared American Indian faculty in academia. This paper provides an overview of the retention and graduation rates of American Indian students enrolled in American higher education. Also discussed are characteristics of American Indian higher education faculty. The authors provide a series of recommendations offered to increase American Indian student retention as well as increase the availability of American Indian faculty in higher education. Full Article




Emancipation or Liberation? The European Union’s Gender Policy and Candidate States: The Case of Turkey.   Yannis A. Stivachtis and Stephanie Georgakis


Abstract

EU policy acts to mandate emancipation, without necessarily “liberating” women. Rather than stimulate social change, the stated objective of gender mainstreaming is to create a legal atmosphere that could, with the right social conditions, foster liberation. Although EU conditionality has been quite effective in shaping gender policies and changing gender attitudes in Turkey, major shortcomings still exist. Gender policies in Turkey were made in a top-down manner and consequently, the underlying features that create the foundation for the patriarchal system were not affected by the legal reforms. There is a discrepancy between what is legally stated and what is actually practiced. Thus the Turkish case highlights the important distinction between “enacting legislation” and “implementing legislation”, as well as questions a fundamental of EU gender policy. As a result, a clear distinction should be drawn between institutional and societal levels. It requires a great commitment from the Turkish Government to educate the public on issues where prejudice against the position and role of women in society is central. The patriarchal system, fundamentally sustained by Mediterranean culture and Islam, is so collectively understood that laws cannot reverse it. Instead, the social change must first take place, so that the laws can reflect society; not vice versa. Until women cease to be the “transmitters and protectors of dominant social values and norms”, there cannot be fundamental change. As long as women are culturally understood to posses a fundamental role as a sexual being, whose dominant place is the domestic sphere, their societal role cannot change. Gender roles must be redefined, but the reform must necessarily occur socially and not only being reflected in laws and regulations. Full Article