ISSN 1556-6757






Volume 1, Issue 2, 2007

What is the Literature Telling Us About Educational Technology and Professional Practice Outside the U.S.A.?  Heidi L. Schnackenberg


The findings of the analysis in “Twenty Years (and More) of International Review: A Retrospective View” (Seo, Eastmond, & Cain, 2002), indicated that articles were consistently current with emerging media at the time of publication, shifted from being authored by Americans to having a broader spectrum of authors with a variety of citizenships, initially conveyed ideas from a U.S. perspective on internationalism and “facilitated communication among international professionals working in the field of instructional technology.” This statement prompted the query that if communication has been consistent, then what exactly has been communicated? The current article discusses what overall ideas, concerns, and information this particular body of literature is trying to convey. In essence, the question pursued is “What is the literature saying about educational technology and professional practice outside the U.S.A?”  Full Article


The Effects of Religiosity, Gender, and At-Risk Behaviors On Students’ Perceived Leadership Ability  Jeffrey A. Miles, Stefanie E. Naumann


In a sample of 790 college students, we present and test a model that identifies three factors associated with perceived leadership ability: religiosity, gender, and at-risk behavior. Stronger perceptions of self-reported leadership ability were found for those who viewed themselves as more religious compared to those who perceived themselves as less religious. Women tended to score higher in self-reported religiosity, but lower in self-reported leadership ability, than did men. Women also tended to report that they engaged in at-risk behavior less frequently than men. At-risk behavior was not found to be significantly related to either perceived religiosity or to perceived leadership ability. In summary, our model found some support for the influences of religiosity and gender on self-reported leadership ability. Full Article


Non-academic Behavioral Indicators of Student Impairment: A Survey of CACREP-accredited Master’s-level Counseling Programs
Chi-Sing Li, Jerry Trusty, Mary Nichter,Sheryl Serres,Yu-Fen Lin


The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of agreement and disagreement among the academic unit leaders of the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) regarding a set of 17 predetermined non-academic behavioral indicators of impairment of master’s-level students as derived from a review of literature (Burgress, 1995; Vacha-Hasse, 1995; Woodyard, 1997). 144 CACREP academic unit leaders were contacted and invited to participate in a telephone survey. Thirty five telephone questionnaires were completed, and the resulting data were then analyzed using descriptive methods. The results indicated that a majority of the participants agreed that the 17 pre-listed impairment indicators are serious enough to impede students’ counseling performance and/or may cause harm to clients. These results are consistent with the findings of the research studies of Burgress (1995), Vacha-Hasse (1995), and Woodyard (1997) and helped to validate the indicators these researchers identified. Full Article


Head’s Up: Research and Student Evaluations of Instructor
Susan Pass


Recent research indicates that there appears to be a statistically significant negative impact upon student evaluations of instructors (SEIs) if consistent research is done on those students by the instructor (i.e. one’s students are the subject of one’s research), F (1/15)=12.035, p= .004, N=367.  This finding impacts all professors whose SEIs are included in their review for promotion and tenure. Full Article

Educational Implications of the Trinity Paradigm of Intelligence
Masoud Ghaffari



The body of literature on human intelligence includes studies that stimulate human thinking and shed light on who we are as living entities and how we survive in complex situations. However, these studies lack one vital aspect of intelligence, the transpersonal aspect. A holistic approach would take into consideration the interdependence of the embodied mind and transpersonal dynamics of who we are and how we make sense of our day-to-day living and enactment. Therefore, the intention of this article is to explore a holistic approach to human intelligence and its implications for education in general and mathematics education in particular. Full Article

School Culture and Sexual Minority Teachers in the United States
David L. Stader, Thomas J. Graca


Empirical research concerning school culture and sexual minority teachers (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) in the United States is inadequate at best. This article uses data from educational leadership candidates enrolled in a Southwestern metropolitan principal certification program to examine perceptions of the relative tolerance for real or perceived sexual minority teachers on their respective campuses. A total of 117 public school teachers representing 20 school districts enrolled in principal certification courses during the 2004-2005 academic year participated in the study. The research instrument consisted of four yes/no questions, eight 1-9 Likert-type scales, and demographic data. Standard statistics were used to report the results. Data supports 1) the prevalence of homophobic comments and prejudicial language previously reported by self-identified sexual minority teachers, 2) the assumption that some school cultures are more supportive of sexual minority teachers than others, and 3) the existence of a greater reluctance among men in recommending real or perceived sexual minority teachers for employment, when compared with women. Full Article

Effects of Attributions and Task Values on Foreign Language Use Anxiety
Hye-Yeon Lim


Using the expectancy-value theory of anxiety and attribution theory, learners’ perceptions about

controllability and task values regarding language learning were examined in order to explore how they affected foreign language use anxiety. Survey data results from 226 international teaching assistants revealed that first, learners who believed effort was the most important factor determining communication competence and outcomes on the TOEFL experienced a high level of foreign language use anxiety. Second, task values (i.e., interest, importance, utility) of language learning and foreign language use anxiety were related but, not in a straightforward fashion. As the perceived levels of importance of language learning increased levels of foreign language use anxiety also heightened. However, interest and utility were negatively related to foreign language use anxiety. The implications of these findings for increasing our understanding of perceptions, motivation, anxiety, as well as practical issues are discussed.
Full Article


Impact of Immersion Experience in an Immigrant Community on Pre-service Teachers’ Cross-Cultural and Global Awareness  Yali Zhao


This study examined a group of pre-service teachers’ cross-cultural immersion experience at a large immigrant community and the impact of this immersion on their understanding and belief about teaching immigrant students. Findings suggest that pre-service teachers experienced culture shock and language barrier, yet they learned profoundly from this experience. The immersion helped promote pre-service teachers’ cross-cultural and global awareness and empowered them in teaching immigrant students. Full Article

Considerations for College enrollment among Jews and Arabs in Israel: Are there differences between minority and majority groups?  
Dan Soen, Nitza Davidovich, Michal Kolan


The article deals with enrollment considerations of two distinct groups of Israeli students: one belongs to the majority group (Jewish students), the other to the minority group (Arab students).

This is a case study examining the considerations of the two groups who attend undergraduate studies at two academic campuses in Israel. The research team’s assumption was that due to the Arab students’ minority status, as well as their socioeconomic status, there would be a difference between their enrollment considerations and those of students who belong to the Jewish majority due to different opportunity structures available to the two groups.

An analysis of the attitude questionnaires that were distributed among the students in both sectors revealed a number of differences in the examined variables, including study disciplines, enrollment considerations and information sources for enrollment. However, the principal surprising finding of the study is that despite the fact that in the Jewish sector graduates enjoys a relative advantage over graduates in the Arab sector in terms of both admission criteria and the chances of finding work upon graduation, there is no material difference between them in terms of enrollment considerations. Full Article


Syllable Constructs of Preschool Children and the Implications Regarding Speech Therapy
Larry Barnes

Finding effective ways to remediate difficult phonemes for children with articulation deficits is the focus of this research paper. Emphasis was placed upon the syllable constructs of preschool children and the implication of these constructs on remediation techniques. Open (unchecked) constructs are favored for remediation targets. These constructs are recommended in combination with tense vowels. The insertion of a tense vowel (epenthesis) is also recommended for minimal closed syllable constructs (CVC). An age range table of syllable constructs is provided along with a table recommending specific constructs for initial remediation of difficult phonemes. Full Article


From Obstacles to Opportunities in a Professional Development School Partnership
Heljä Antola Crowe, Robert Wolffe, Janet Jackson, Sandy Farkash, Cathy Wiggers,
Taunya Jenkins

Institutions create partnerships that are grounded within the needs of each community and school culture to further their goals. Collaboration among professionals in several fields allows for an expanded view of diversity of people, institutions and opportunities, which benefits all parties. Collaborators can see differences and possibilities in the context of cultural, ethnic and institutional expectations, attitudes and routines, thinking patterns, and administrative procedures as opportunities for learning. Partnerships are challenging due to the many potential barriers. Willingness to view these possible barriers from the point of view of possibilities can change the nature of this list to become opportunities. Full Article


Initiation of heterosexual activity among adolescents in rural Jamaica: The influence of family factors

Olaniyi J. Ekundayo, Joana Dodson-Stallworth, Michele Roofe, Inmaculada C. Aban,

Laura H. Bachmann, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, John Ehiri, Pauline E. Jolly

The objective of this study was to identify individual and family level factors associated with initiation of sexual activity among adolescents in rural Jamaica. We analyzed data for a sample of 748 students attending public high schools in the parish of Hanover, Jamaica, who completed a survey containing questions on age, gender, leisure activities, type of school attended, family structure, communication with parents on sexual matters, and parental monitoring of adolescent activities. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association of these variables with sexual experience. 62.7% of participants were sexually experienced. For females sexual experience was associated with lack of parental monitoring [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.35], while living with both biological parents delayed initiation of sexual activity (OR=0.45; 95% CI = 0.30-0.67). For males lack of parental monitoring (OR=1.19; 95% CI = 1.01-1.39) was a significant predictor of sexual experience. In this environment with high rates of adolescent pregnancy, intervention programs must recognize the influence of family factors on initiation of sexual activity and implement a broad-range prevention strategy that will involve the parents. Full Article

Metacognition and the Use of Inner Speech in Children’s Thinking: A Tool Teachers Can Use
Andrea Zakin

Teachers frequently dismiss children’s self-directed speech as distracting classroom behavior.Yet, if teachers could envision self-talk as active constructivist activity intrinsic to metacognitive understanding, they could use inner speech as a tool to help students control and enhance their cognitive performance. Inner speech, a component of L.S. Vygotsky’s learning theory, plays a self-regulatory and self-instructional role for all types of learners. Studies on inner speech are examined to understand its potential role as a key metacognitive instructional strategy in inquiry oriented approaches to art, mathematics, and literacy education. These investigations found that inner speech helps students with the self-regulation of cognitive behavior and development. Hence, this paper highlights the application of a metacognitive approach to the instruction of math, literacy, and art, recognizing that inner speech is an underutilized and cost-effective educational resource that teachers can readily incorporate in their pedagogy. Full Article


Physical Self-Concept of Spanish Schoolchildren: Differences by Gender, Sport Practice and Levels of Sport Involvement Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia, Eduardo Cervelló Gimeno, José Antonio Vera Lacárcel, Luís Miguel Ruiz Pérez

This study examined the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the C-PSQ, as

well as the effect of gender, the practice of physical activity and sport and the extent of physical

activity and sport practice outside of school hours in relation to the physical self-concept of older

primary schoolchildren in Physical Education classes. The sample was comprised of 1086

participants, 570 boys and 516 girls ranging in age from 10 to 11 years. Each student completed

Fox and Corbin’s (1989) Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP) as it had been modified for the

Spanish context by Moreno and Cervelló (2005). The Spanish language version of the PSPP

constituted a valid measure of the physical self-concept of these youth and was comprised of four factors. The construct validity of the measure was supported by findings that revealed that

individuals who engaged in sport practice outside of school hours, and who engaged in a greater frequency of sport practice outside of school hours, had more favourable self-perceptions of competence and confidence in physical activities than did those engaged in less physical activity outside of school. Results in relation to gender indicated that boys had higher levels of perceived competence and greater self-confidence that did the girls in relation to sport activities, whereas the girls had a more favourable perception of their physical appearance and physical strength than did boys. These differences may reflect underlying growth and developmental influences for boys and girls in this age range. Full Article


Profiling Secondary School Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Learning Physics

Voltaire Mallari Mistades


The study describes the attitudes towards Physics and learning Physics of secondary school teachers who underwent a six-week in-service training program at the De La Salle University – Manila during the months of April and May, 2007. Since the background of the teachers was neither in Physics nor in Physics education, the training program was designed to upgrade their conceptual understanding of Physics and their skills and competencies in teaching Physics. Using the data obtained from the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS), this study presents a profile of the attitudes and beliefs held by the secondary school teachers.

Full Article

Interactions among Children’s Ability to Control Impulsive Behaviors, Academic Motivation, and Academic Performance over Years across Kindergarten and First Grade
Ming-hui Li and Andrew Ferdinandi


This study explored the relationships among children’s ability to control impulsive behaviors,

academic motivation, and academic performance. Results showed that, as early as when children are in kindergarten and first grade, their ability to control impulsiveness and their academic motivation both positively influence academic performance. However, academic motivation does not mediate between children’s ability to control impulsiveness and their academic performance. Different aspects of children’s self-concepts (social competence and academic competence) are closely associated with each other, but academic motivation does not influence that association. Data were extracted from a national database—the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-99.  Full Article

Teacher Perceptions of Psychological Reports Submitted for Emotional Disturbance Eligibility
Gail M. Cheramie , Beverly J. Goodman , Victoria T. Santos , Elizabeth T. Webb


Elementary teachers evaluated a psychological evaluation report with authorship as the independent variable. One-half of the teachers were informed that the report was prepared by a psychologist working within the school district (District), while the other half were informed that the report was done by a psychologist in private practice who contracts with the district (Contract). The teachers completed a 23-item Likert-scale evaluation instrument. The District report was rated higher in certain areas; there were no significant differences regarding overall report quality based on authorship; and, in general, the lowest mean ratings (e.g., adequate recommendations, avoidance of technical language) are consistent with prior investigations.

Full Article


A survey of ergonomic issues associated with a university laptop program
Rafael Moras and Tatiana Gamarra

A survey of 361 undergraduate students at a midsized university was conducted to investigate the ergonomic effects of the adoption of a university-wide laptop program. The results include descriptive statistics regarding perceived levels of discomfort—tingling and pain—by users.
Full Article


Synchronous Communication Scenarios in Online-Cooperation Virtual Environments
Rainer Heers

Communication and collaboration in Online-Cooperation Virtual Environments (OCVE) are

characterized by technical and organizational constraints. Based on well-established theory and

research, necessary adjustments of pedagogical concepts for this scenario are presented here.

Oriented towards practical use, considered topics include: (1) general features of communication, verbal and nonverbal behavior, and processes of moderating meetings as to their relevance for OCVEs and (2) the communication scenario of the OCVE in the project Moderation VR. Thereby, specific opportunities and limitations of communicating in an OCVE are integrated into general considerations on group work and learner support. Full Article

Creative Thinking: Music Improvisational Skills Development among Elementary School Students     Mark T. Kiehn

The purpose of this study was to investigate the music improvisational skill of students in grades 2, 4, and 6. Randomly selected participants from 3 elementary schools (N=60) were given one measure, the Vaughan Test of Musical Creativity; and two independent judges scored student responses. Rated dimensions were originality, rhythmic interest, and melodic interest. There were no significant gender differences between males and females on test scores; however, a significant grade level difference emerged with grade 2 students scoring significantly lower than grade 4, and slightly lower than grade 6 students. The results indicate a creative thinking growth stage may exist from grade 2 to 4, followed by a developmental leveling (no significant change in test scores) between grade 4 and grade 6.  Full Article


Incorporating Geographic Information Systems into an MBA Program
David Gadish

This paper discusses the introduction of a Geographic Information Systems module into a Master of Business Administration (MBA) program. The module promotes spatial thinking, which is the analysis and management of issues in terms of their location component. An overview of GIS technology in the context of business is presented. An approach for incorporating GIS and

spatial thinking into the MBA program is discussed. A study showcasing the increased benefits of the proposed approach is presented. MBA program faculty are encouraged to adopt GIS for their teaching, producing MBA graduates that can promote GIS within their organizations and

incorporate spatial thinking into the management of their organizations.  Full Article


A Nationwide Study of how Democracy is Implemented in Schools

Jason J. Barr

Traditional schools are bureaucratic institutions. Democratic school, however, encourage more

egalitarian relationships between teachers and students. This was a descriptive study of the democratic practices that schools implement despite the bureaucratic nature of traditional schools. Self-identified democratic schools were e-mailed a survey. An overarching theme in all schools was a respect for equal decision-making among students and staff. Differences were found between “alternative” and “free” schools. Alternative schools were public institutions, larger, implemented more practices to establish democracy, and had much more bureaucracy. Free schools were all private institutions, smaller, used more community service to establish citizenship, and less bureaucratic. Full Article

Immediate and Short-term Effects of Challenge Course Training on Perceived Employee Cohesion within Human Services Workers in Ten Rural Counties
Cynthia Faulkner, Samuel Faulkner, Latonya Hesterberg

This study finds a significant increase in perceived cohesion for 137 participants immediately after a three hour Challenge Course training for human service employees in ten rural counties. Two weeks following the Challenge Course training there was still no significant drop in perceived cohesion for seven employees. This, however, changes for the individuals responding three or more weeks post intervention (n = 44) with a significant drop in perceived cohesion. Support of using initiatives as opposed to physical challenges is suggested by the drop off of participation level when physical challenges are introduced during the training.  Full Article

An Investigation of Teacher’s ‘Color-Blind’ Racial Attitudes and Diversity Training Experiences:Implications for Teacher Education   Sheri A. Atwater

Research demonstrates that skin color significantly impacts how students are treated (Lewis, 2001; Skiba, et al., 2002). Despite this, some teachers hold “color-blind” attitudes where they pretend not to notice or care about students’ ethnicity. This study explored the color-blind attitudes and diversity training experiences of 46 elementary teachers. Teachers completed both a Color-bind Racial Attitude Survey (Neville, 2000) and a diversity training questionnaire. Teachers whose diversity training a) included a “color-conscious” curriculum, b) was longer than one day, and c) taught how to address racial issues held significantly lower color-blind attitude scores. Implications for multicultural teacher education are discussed. Full Article


Critical thinking: A family resemblance in conceptions
M Akshir Ab Kadir

In this paper, I suggest that the various definitions of critical thinking posited in the literature, while distinct in some respects, effectively share a Wittgensteinian family resemblance. It is this

resemblance that not only conceptually binds the various definitions but makes various

references to critical thinking meaningful both conceptually and in practice — the contestable

differences among them notwithstanding. A complete consensus on a common definition of

critical thinking remains elusive in the literature because the multifacetedness of critical thinking

resists the imposition of boundaries of particular conceptions, given its nature that is predisposed by the key notions of goal and context.  Full Article

Does Religious Behavior Predict Academic Success for English Learners
Jeanmarie Hamilton Boone

This study examines the religious practices and behaviors of predominantly Hispanic, high school English learners to determine whether their religious behaviors, such as attending church, enjoying church attendance and wearing religious symbols are associated with academic achievement. In the sample of 126 primarily Christian students, religiosity was determined not to be associated with academic achievement. Full Article

Can Social trust and participation be reinforced through education? Empirical data from Greece  

Efstratios Papanis and Myrsine Roumeliotou

The present study is part of a wider research conducted in Greece on social capital and the correlation of its two dimensions – social trust and participation – with variables, such as gender, age, income etc. The study also attempts to explore the differences presented in social capital among participants of different educational levels. The present article particularly focuses on a specific group, i.e. Second Chance School graduates in Greece and studies the impact of their involvement in life-long training on their social trust and participation levels, compared with adults of other educational levels. Correlations between educational level, social participation and trust were calculated using the Pearson Chi-Square test.  Full Article


A Course Model for Developing Culturally Proficient School Leaders
Diane Reed, Rebecca Bustamante, Carol H. Parker, Rebecca Robles-Pina, Anthony J. Harris

School leaders must be culturally proficient in order to effectively lead twenty-first century schools. They must be able to interact with people from a variety of cultures and devise strategies that enhance education in diverse settings. Nevertheless, few graduate programs in educational leadership require students to complete courses in cultural proficiency. This article describes the development and implementation of the course, Cultural Proficiency for School Leadership, which was developed for a graduate educational leadership program at a state university. Emphasis is placed on how cultural knowledge and awareness can positively influence school leaders’ understanding of the importance of cultural proficiency.  Full Article